Unit 6 Grammar: Present Perfect Simple

The present perfect simple can be used:

  • To talk about past experiences in our life.
  • To talk about the recent past.

There are two very important things you need to know:

  • The auxiliary verb have (contracted to ‘ve, for the subjects I, you, we, you and they) and has (contracted to ‘s, for the subjects he, she, itthird person of singular).
  • The past participle of the verb (the third column of the irregular verbs, or ed for regular verbs).

This is the formula:

(+) AFFIRMATIVE
SUBJECT HAVE/HAS (auxiliary verb) Main VERB COMPLEMENTS
I have been to London.
She has climbed Mount Everest.
(-) NEGATIVE
SUBJECT HAVEN’T/HASN’T (auxiliary verb + not) Main VERB COMPLEMENTS
I haven’t seen her before.
It hasn’t rained this week.
(?) INTERROGATIVE
(Wh- word) HAVE/HAS SUBJECT (ADVERB of FREQUENCY)* Main VERB COMPLEMENTS
Have you (ever)** danced hula in Hawaii?
Why has she left the class?

*Adverbs of frequency aren’t only used in interrogatives. They are used just before the main verb. E.g: I have never played this game before.

Ever is an adverb of frequency used in interrogatives that means in your whole life”.

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Unit 5: Zero conditional

The zero conditional is used to talk about what happens when a condition is met.

It always has a CONDITION (IF clause) and a CONSEQUENCE (a present simple or imperative clause).

They can go on either order, it doesn’t matter. Just like these examples.

NOTE: In zero conditional you can always change If for when (If = When).

CONDITION (IF clause) CONSEQUENCE (a present simple clause).
If you study,

If you are thirsty,

If someone steals your bike

you pass all your exams.

the robot brings you a drink.

call the police (no subject – imperative)

CONSEQUENCE (a present simple clause). CONDITION (IF clause)
You pass all your exams.

The robot brings you a drink.

Call the police (no subject – imperative)

if you study.

if you are thirsty.

if someone steals your bike.

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Unit 5: Will future

Will future or simple future can be used to:

  • Talk generally about the future.
  • Make general predictions.
  • Talk about last minute future plans, including promises.

The formula is very simple:

(+) AFFIRMATIVE
SUBJECT WILL (auxiliary verb) Main VERB COMPLEMENTS
People

Therese

will

will

have

study

robots at home

very hard for the exam

(-) NEGATIVE
SUBJECT WON’T (auxiliary verb) Main VERB COMPLEMENTS
I

Tommy

won’t

won’t

be

come

late for school tomorrow.

to the birthday party.

(?) INTERROGATIVE
WH- Word WILL (auxiliary verb) SUBJECT Main VERB COMPLEMENTS
 

 

Where

Will

Will

will

you

people

you

play

live

go

football tomorrow?

on other planets in the future?

after school?

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Unit 4: Could and would

Could I (have a drink/have a pizza…) ? -> To ask politely (pedir educadamente)

I‘d like (to have an orange juice/ to have a pizza). -> To make an order politely (hacer un pedido educadamente).

Would you like (a pizza/to have a drink)? -> To offer politely (ofrecer educadamente)

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Unit 4: Adverbs with Every-, Some-, Any- and No-

Every- Some- (Affirmative) Any- (Negative and Interrogative) No- (Affirmative)
Object (Objetos) Everything → Todo Something → Alguno Anything → Nada Nothing → Nada
Place (Lugar) Everywhere → En/por todas partes Somewhere → En/por alguna parte Anywhere → En/por alguna parte Nowhere → En ningún sitio
People (Personas) Everybody → Todo el mundo/todos Somebody → Alguien Anybody → Alguien Nobody → Nadie
Everyone → Todos/cada uno Someone → Alguien Anyone → Alguien
Time (Tiempo) Everyday → Todos los días Someday → Algún día
Every time → Cada vez/todas las veces Sometime → Alguna vez Any time → En cualquier momento
Sometimes → A veces
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Unit 3: SUPERLATIVES:

SHORT ADJECTIVES

One syllable:
Tall —> The tallest El/la más alto/a
Short —> The shortest El/la más bajo/corto
Old —> The oldest El/la más viejo/mayor
Young —> The youngest El/la más jóven
Big —> The biggest El/la más grande
Small —> The smallest El/la más pequeño
Hot —> The hottest El/la más caluroso/caliente
Warm —> The warmest El/la más templado/caluroso
Cold —> The coldest El/la más frío
Wet —> The wettest El/la más húmedo/mojado
Dry —> The driest El/la más seco
Long —> The longest El/la más largo
Cheap —> The cheapest El/la más barato
Late —> The latest El/la último/a
Light —> The lightest El/la más ligero
Two syllables ending in -y
Heavy —> The heaviest El/la más pesado
Happy —> The happiest El/la más felíz/contento
Early —> The earliest El/la más temprano/pronto

LONG ADJECTIVES

Two syllables (except two syllables ending in -y)
Beautiful —> The most beautiful Más bonito/a
Difficult —> The most difficult El/la más dificil
Dangerous —> The most dangerous El/la más peligroso
Expensive—> The most expensive El/la más caro
Popular —> The most popular El/la más popular

E.g. Jupiter is the biggest planet in the solar system.

E.g. Everyone is her friend. She is the most popular girl in the school.

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Unit 3: COMPARATIVES OF SUPERIORITY: SHORT ADJECTIVES

COMPARATIVES OF SUPERIORITY:

SHORT ADJECTIVES

One syllable:
Tall —> Taller Más alto
Short —> Shorter Más bajo/corto
Old —> Older Más viejo/mayor
Young —> Younger Más jóven
Big —> Bigger Más grande
Small —> Smaller Más pequeño
Hot —> Hotter Más caluroso/caliente
Warm —> Warmer Más templado/caluroso
Cold —> Colder Más frío
Wet —> Wetter Más húmedo/mojado
Dry —> Drier Más seco
Long —> Longer Más largo
Cheap —> Cheaper Más barato
Late —> Later Más tarde
Light —> Lighter Más ligero
Two syllables ending in -y
Heavy —> Heavier Más pesado
Happy —> Happier Más felíz/contento
Early —> Earlier Más temprano/pronto

E.g. Tony is 9, Paul is 8. Tony is older than Paul. Paul is younger than Tony.

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Unit 3: Numbers – How to say years

Saying the year in English is difficult, because there are so many ways depending on the year. Normally, we say the year splitting the four digit number in two two digit numbers.

E.g.:

2016: Normally we would read this number as “two thousand and sixteen”.

But when we read it as a year, we read it “(20) (16) twenty sixteen“.

1985: “(19)(85) nineteen eighty-five”

1990: “(19)(90) nineteen ninety”

1995: “(19)(95) nineteen ninety-five”

For years between 2000 and 2009 we normally read them as the normal number.

E.g:

2000: Two-thousand.

2001: Two-thousand and one.

2009: Two-thousand and nine.

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