Unit 6 Grammar: Present Perfect Simple

The present perfect simple can be used:

  • To talk about past experiences in our life.
  • To talk about the recent past.

There are two very important things you need to know:

  • The auxiliary verb have (contracted to ‘ve, for the subjects I, you, we, you and they) and has (contracted to ‘s, for the subjects he, she, itthird person of singular).
  • The past participle of the verb (the third column of the irregular verbs, or ed for regular verbs).

This is the formula:

(+) AFFIRMATIVE
SUBJECT HAVE/HAS (auxiliary verb) Main VERB COMPLEMENTS
I have been to London.
She has climbed Mount Everest.
(-) NEGATIVE
SUBJECT HAVEN’T/HASN’T (auxiliary verb + not) Main VERB COMPLEMENTS
I haven’t seen her before.
It hasn’t rained this week.
(?) INTERROGATIVE
(Wh- word) HAVE/HAS SUBJECT (ADVERB of FREQUENCY)* Main VERB COMPLEMENTS
Have you (ever)** danced hula in Hawaii?
Why has she left the class?

*Adverbs of frequency aren’t only used in interrogatives. They are used just before the main verb. E.g: I have never played this game before.

Ever is an adverb of frequency used in interrogatives that means in your whole life”.

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